Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: Psychoeducation among caregivers to help patients develop effective coping strategies

Daryanto Daryanto, Mohammad Syukri, Sri Martini, Sri Endriyani, Mila Triana Sari


Background: Hallucinations are common symptoms experienced by patients with schizophrenia. These hallucinations pose difficulties in control, becoming a burden for caregivers providing care. Meanwhile, psychoeducation utilizing modules and videos to treat auditory hallucinations has not been previously implemented. Psychoeducation is beneficial in managing caregiver burden, yet the psychoeducation content hasn't been specific to auditory hallucinations.

Purpose: To determine the influence of psychoeducation using modules and videos to help patients develop effective coping strategies, and burden among caregivers

Method: A quantitative study with a pre-experimental design using a pre-test and post-test approach. This research was conducted to measure caregiver burden before and after the intervention. The intervention involved providing psychoeducation using modules and videos for caring for auditory hallucinations, while the control group received psychoeducation using only modules. The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of Jambi Regional Mental Hospital from July to September 2023.

Results: There was a significant difference in caregiver burden (p-value 0.000) in the intervention group before and after treatment. There was a significant difference in caregiver burden (p-value 0.000) in the control group before and after treatment. There was no significant difference in caregiver burden (p-value 0.161) between the intervention and control groups one month after the intervention.

Conclusion: Psychoeducation with modules and videos can reduce caregiver burden in schizophrenia patients. Psychiatric nurses should educate caregivers using modules and videos for caring for auditory hallucinations as part of reducing the caregiving burden.

Suggestion: Healthcare professionals should also provide psychoeducation using auditory hallucination care modules and videos to caregivers on managing the caregiving burden for individuals with schizophrenia experiencing auditory hallucinations. Caregivers are encouraged to understand the module book and video on auditory hallucination care as a form of continued care at home for individuals with schizophrenia experiencing auditory hallucinations.


Family Burden; Hallucination; Schizophrenia; Video

Full Text:



Addiba, A., & Choiriyyah, Z. (2020). Hubungan Beban dengan Kemampuan Pengasuh Merawat Activity Of Daily Living (ADL) Pasien Skizofrenia: Relationship between Load and Family Ability to Care for Activity Of Daily Living (ADL) in Schizophrenia Patients. Journal of Holistics and Health Sciences (JHHS), 2(2), 13-21.

Ahmed, H. A. A. E., & Ghaith, R. F. A. H. (2018). Effect of psycho-educational program on families’ perception of burden and attitudes toward mental illness among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Egyptian Nursing Journal, 15(3), 331.

Araujo, A. D. S., & Pedroso, T. G. (2019). The relationship between expressed emotion and sociodemographic variables, early stress and stress symptoms in informal caregivers of people with mental disorders. Cadernos Brasileiros de Terapia Ocupacional, 27, 743-753.

Batra, B. S., Saoji, A. M., Batra, S., & Batra, D. S. (2018). Effect of family psycho education on knowledge, quality of life, expressed emotions, burden of disease and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. IOSR J. Dent. Med. Sci, 17, 59-73.

Begam, B., & Baruah, A. (2020). Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Expressed Emotion of Family Members and as Perceived by the Patient with Schizophrenia. Psychiatry, 23(1), 21-6.

Budiono, W., Kantono, K., Kristianto, F. C., Avanti, C., & Herawati, F. (2021). Psychoeducation improved illness perception and expressed emotion of family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), 7522.

Chen, L., Zhao, Y., Tang, J., Jin, G., Liu, Y., Zhao, X., & Lu, X. (2019). The burden, support and needs of primary family caregivers of people experiencing schizophrenia in Beijing communities: a qualitative study. BMC psychiatry, 19, 1-10.

Dewi, A. R., Daulima, N. H. C., & Wardani, I. Y. (2019). Managing family burden through combined family psychoeducation and care decision without pasung therapies. Enfermeria clinica, 29, 76-80.

Gupta, S., Isherwood, G., Jones, K., & Van Impe, K. (2015). Assessing health status in informal schizophrenia caregivers compared with health status in non-caregivers and caregivers of other conditions. BMC psychiatry, 15(1), 1-11.

Harvey, C. (2018). Family psychoeducation for people living with schizophrenia and their families. BJPsych Advances, 24(1), 9-19.

Herminsih, A. R., Barlianto, W., & Kapti, R. E. (2017). Pengaruh terapi family psychoeducation (FPE) terhadap kecemasan dan beban pengasuh dalam merawat anggota pengasuh dengan skizofrenia di kecamatan bola kabupaten sikka, nusa tenggara timur. Jurnal Kesehatan Mesencephalon, 3(2).

Kusumawardani, W., Yusuf, A., Ni’mah, L., & Tristiana, D. (2019). Family Burden Effect on the Ability in Taking Care of Schizophrenia Patient. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 10(8).

Lyman, D. R., Braude, L., George, P., Dougherty, R. H., Daniels, A. S., Ghose, S. S., & Delphin-Rittmon, M. E. (2014). Consumer and family psychoeducation: Assessing the evidence. Psychiatric Services, 65(4), 416-428.

Ramírez, A., Palacio, J. D., Vargas, C., Díaz-Zuluaga, A. M., Duica, K., Berruecos, Y. A., & López-Jaramillo, C. (2017). Expressed emotions, burden and family functioning in schizophrenic and bipolar I patients of a multimodal intervention programme: PRISMA. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 46(1), 2-11.

Rusmimpong, R., Daryanto, D., & Damayantie, N. (2016). Family Burden of Schizophrenia Patient who Check at Psychiatric Polyclinic of Psychiatric Hospital of Jambi Province. Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan, 3(1), 42-45.

Shetty, K. V., Math, S. B., Marimuthu, P., & Rawat, V. S. (2023). Family intervention for expressed emotion in schizophrenia: Indian context. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 65(4), 453.

Sime, Y., Mohammed, M., Kebede, D., Kidane, M., Negash, M., Adamu, Y., & Gashaw, A. (2023). Expressed emotion and associated factors among care givers of schizophrenia patient attending mental health service in Dilla University Refferal Hospital, Dilla, Southern Ethiopia, 2022.

Siregar, I., Rahmadiyah, F., & Siregar, A. F. Q. (2021). Therapeutic communication strategies in nursing process of angry, anxious, and fearful schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Nursing Studies, 1(1), 13-19.

Wan, K. F., & Wong, M. M. (2019). Stress and burden faced by family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and early psychosis in Hong Kong. Internal Medicine Journal, 49, 9-15.

Wang, X., Chen, Q., & Yang, M. (2017). Effect of caregivers’ expressed emotion on the care burden and rehospitalization rate of schizophrenia. Patient preference and adherence, 1505-1511.

Yimam, B., Soboka, M., Getachew, Y., Alemu, B., Ahmed, G., Tesfaye, E., & Necho, M. (2022). Expressed emotion of caregivers among schizophrenic patients visiting Jimma University Medical Center Psychiatry Outpatient Unit, Southwest Ethiopia. Annals of General Psychiatry, 21(1), 1-10.

Zanetti, A. C. G., Vedana, K. G. G., Pereira, C. C. M., de Azevedo Marques, J. M., da Silva, A. H. S., Martin, I. D. S., & Gherardi-Donato, E. C. D. S. (2019). Expressed emotion and socio-demographic and clinical factors in families of Brazilian patients with schizophrenia. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 65(1), 56-63.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Malahayati International Journal of Nursing and Health Science

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.