Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kepatuhan Minum Obat Antiretroviral (ARV) Pada Pasien HIV-AIDS: Literature Review

Maria Devi Novarita, Sri Yona

Sari


ABSTRACT

 

HIV-AIDS is a disease that currently cannot be cured. Until now, no drug has been found can cure HIV, but antiretroviral drugs (ARV) have proven to be very effective in delaying the emergence of AIDS by forming antibodies and producing pro-inflammatory agents to suppress the number of viruses in the blood so that can inhibit damage to immune system (Permenkes, 2016). Adherence to taking ARV is very important to be maintained because they must be taken throughout life (Kemenkes Ditjen P2P, 2024). To analyze factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication in HIV-AIDS patients, through a systematic review. The design of this research is a literature review using the PRISMA flow diagram. Researcher used PEO and searched for English language articles, which is published from 2018 to March 2024. The databases used were Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, EBSCO and Proquest. Beside of the five databases, the researcher added two Indonesian language articles related to the purpose of the literature, which were the result of lecturers of Nursing Science study program, Faculty of Nursing, University of Indonesia. Researcher uses the Covidence tool for the data selection process through to extraction. Sixteen articles were identified and analyzed. Ten of the sixteen articles had cross-sectional study design. The sample size of the studies ranged from 9 to 792 which were conducted in various geographical areas, 50% of the articles, which are 8 articles was carried out in country on the African continent, most of them were South Africa, East Africa and West Africa and the remaining articles came from the American continent as well as Southeast Asia and South Asia. From the literature review conducted by the researcher, the researcher concluded several factors that influence ART treatment adherence which include factors related to the patient himself (gender or sex, age, level of education, socio-economic status, self-awareness, alcohol drinking habits and drug use), stigma (openness about illness, disclosure of status to partner), social support (partner, family, social environment), treatment (side effects of medication and duration of HIV illness), health services (convenience and trust in health facilities).

 

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Factors Influence, Medication, Adherence

 

 

ABSTRAK

 

HIV-AIDS merupakan penyakit yang saat ini belum dapat disembuhkan. Hingga saat ini, memang belum ditemukan obat yang dapat menyembuhkan HIV, tetapi obat antiretroviral (ARV) terbukti sangat efektif dalam menunda munculnya AIDS dengan membentuk antibodi dan menghasilkan agen proinflamasi untuk menekan jumlah virus dalam darah sehingga dapat menghambat kerusakan sistem kekebalan tubuh (Permenkes, 2016). Kepatuhan minum ARV sangat penting untuk dipertahankan karena harus diminum selama hidupnya (Kemenkes Ditjen P2P, 2024). Melakukan analisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kepatuhan minum obat Antiretroviral (ARV) pada pasien HIV-AIDS, melalui tinjuan sistematik. Desain penelitian ini adalah literature review menggunakan diagram alur PRISMA. Peneliti menggunakan PEO dan mencari artikel bahasa Inggris yang diterbitkan dari tahun 2018 sampai dengan Maret 2024. Database yang digunakan meliputi Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, EBSCO dan Proquest. Selain dari kelima database tersebut peneliti menambahkan dua artikel berbahasa Indonesia terkait tujuan literature, yang merupakan karya dosen, program studi Ilmu Keperawatan, Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan Universitas Indonesia. Peneliti memanfaatkan tool Covidence yang dilakukan untuk proses seleksi data sampai dengan ekstraksi. Enam belas artikel diidentifikasi dan dianalisis. Sepuluh dari enam belas artikel memiliki desain cross sectional studi. Ukuran sampel dari studi berkisar dari 9 sampai dengan 792 yang dilakukan di berbagi wilayah geografis, sebanyak 50% yaitu 8 artikel, penelitiannya dilakukan pada negara bagian dari benua Afrika, yang terbanyak adalah Afrika Selatan, kemudian Afrika Timur dan Afrika Barat dan sisanya artikel berasal dari benua Amerika serta Asia Tenggara dan Asia Selatan. Dari literature review yang dilakukan peneliti, peneliti  menyimpulkan beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi kepatuhan pengobatan ART yang meliputi faktor yang berhubungan dengan pasien sendiri (gender atau jenis kelamin, usia, tingkat pendidikan, status sosial ekonomi, kesadaran diri, kebiasaan minum alkohol dan penggunaan narkoba), stigma (keterbukaan tentang penyakit, pengungkapan status kepada pasangan), dukungan sosial (pasangan, keluarga, lingkungan sosial), pengobatan (efek samping obat dan lama sakit HIV), pelayanan kesehatan (kemudahan dan kepercayaan terhadap fasilitas kesehatan).

 

Kata Kunci: HIV, AIDS, Factors Influence, Medication, Adherence


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33024/mahesa.v4i6.15047

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